In more backward and repressive countries, and especially in Russia, reformism did not seem to be much of an option, and a more radical strategy seemed more relevant.
Although Alexander II established a system of elected local self-government Zemstvo and an independent judicial system, Russia did not have a national-level representative assembly Duma or a constitution until the Revolution.
Were there not plenty of educated people on the side of the old order in England in the seventeenth century, in France at the end of the eighteenth century, and in Russia in the epoch of the October Revolution?
University of Oklahoma Press, The many generations of the intelligentsia each ascribed to different schools of thought but all were engaged in critiquing Russia. Troitskii claimed that the Russian monarchs held sway of the nobility which was reduced to state service.
Russia had several high-level political bodies or councils but their function was limited to providing advice. Other reactionary and pro-tsarist groups emerged during the first years of the s when the tsarist regime was under attack.
Of course, the proletariat, socialism, needs highly educated people. But, all in all, he was wrong to consider that socialism was the ideology that expressed the class interests of the intelligentsia, as the idea of socialism as a truly transformative concept was never at any time synonymous with the intelligentsia as a whole, even in Russia, and the Soviet leadership was never synonymous with the intelligentsia.
Imperial autocracy, [c] Russian autocracy, [d] Muscovite autocracy, [e] tsarist absolutism, [f] imperial absolutism, [g] Russian absolutism, [h] Muscovite absolutism, [i] Muscovite despotism, [j] [k] Russian despotism, [l] tsarist despotism [m] or imperial despotism.
The semi-intelligentsia from whom socialism recruited some of its middle cadres enjoyed Marxism as a mental labour-saving device, easy to handle and fabulously effective. Machajski does not object to the demagogic and sham character of representative institutions under capitalism… Instead, he objects to such institutions to the extent that they do represent more or less accurately the real sentiments of the majority.
The question is, however, which intelligentsia are we discussing? The intelligentsia in Russia was more developed as a discrete social formation than in any other European country specifically because the modern ideas that were attractive to thinking men and women were that much more in contrast to the miserable level of elite political culture than in countries to its West.
In an interview by H. Hostility was expressed at various times by workers to the involvement of students and other intellectuals in the early days of the working class movement. There are no other words to the song. Originally composed of educated nobles, the intelligentsia became dominated by raznochintsy class-less people after For him, these intellectuals were part of the exploiting class, as bad as any capitalist.
In his study of Petrograd workers, David Mandel says: The bureaucracy was the public face of the government but was widely despised for its corruption and officiousness. Furthermore, unlike in western monarchies subject in religious matters to the Popethe Russian Empire combined monarchy with the supreme authority on religious issues see Church reform of Peter I and caesaropapism for details.
February Learn how and when to remove this template message In Russia, the Bolsheviks did not consider the status class of the intelligentsiya to be a true social classas defined in Marxist philosophy. Tsarist government was essentially government by decree: Regarding the substance of the autocracy model, its equation with despotism, its supposed origins in Mongol rule, as well as its supposed rise in medieval Muscovy have been heavily debated.
Wells, Joseph Stalin addresses this question at length: Shatz, Jan Waclaw Machajski:Russian Intelligentsia and the Bolshevik Revolution In the aftermath of the Bolshevik Revolution of there was a battle for the mind of the new Soviet man with artists and intellectuals engaged in the struggle between the old Tsarist and the new Soviet culture.
The emancipation of the serfs in complicated the relationship of the peasants to the intelligentsia; the peasants were convinced that the tsar would eventually give them the land they needed, thus the intelligentsia could not “reeducate the peasants to a conscious revolutionary socialist program” (Pomper, ).
The Russian Intelligentsia, a group of people who shared the bond of being intelligent and against the government, played the key role in overthrowing the tsarist government and instating a new government. Russian Intelligentsia and the Bolshevik Revolution In the aftermath of the Bolshevik Revolution of there was a battle for the mind of the new Soviet man with artists and intellectuals engaged in the struggle between the old Tsarist and the new Soviet culture.
speculations about the Russian intelligentsia's future. The Origins of Russian Intellectual Culture Although the Russian intelligentsia did not evolve into a self-conscious social force until the midth century, its origins can be traced to the early 18th century, when Peter the Great embarked on a crash campaign to modernize Russia.
Beginning aboutRussian culture was dominated by a group known as the “intelligentsia,” a word that English borrowed from Russian but which means something rather different in its original Russian usage.Download