He did entertain a hope, however, that if a tyrant could be "converted" to philosophy, then his ideas would be implemented. Reason alone could reveal the constancy of cosmic order and the originative source of unyielding value; thus, reason became the true model for human existence.
But his view is not an objection to tying morality and religion together. This view became one of the most popular ideas of the 17th century. Nature is understood as the whole realm of being created by God, who guarantees its goodness, unity, and order. A tall flower, a tall dog, a tall man, and a tall tree are of different degrees of length, though the different nouns are described by the same adjective.
The effect on philosophical thinking about the relation between morality and religion is two-fold. We select the desires, acts, and thoughts that we attend to morally, we recognize ourselves as morally bound by some particular ground, e. And let us pause a moment on the brink of our investigation to speak of the utter absurdity of the idea that God has hung the great topic of the immortal welfare of millions of souls on the meaning of a single equivocal word.
Spartan citizens were allowed to possess little money, and Spartan men were expected, officially, to eat all their meals at a common mess, where the food was legendarily bad -- all to toughen them up.
Morality, they argue, is not universal. Mention of the divine is not merely conventional for Aristotle, but does important philosophical work. This degree is not negligible, since humans are social animals, and their well-being depends on the well-being of the families and cities of which they are members.
Second, he does not think that the moral law is self-evident or necessary. In the words of C. New Testament scholars disagree about the extent to which Jesus actually claimed to be God, but the traditional interpretation is that he did make this claim; in any case the Christian doctrine is that we can see in his life the clearest possible revelation in human terms both of what God is like and at the same time of what our lives ought to be like.
In the West knowledge of most of Aristotle's texts was lost, but not in the East.
The next two centuries in European philosophy can be described in terms of two lines of development, rationalism and empiricism, both of which led, in different ways, to the possibility of a greater detachment of ethics from theology.
But when we interpret it in the light of its lexicography, and general usage out of the Old Testament, and perceive that it only has the sense of endless when the subject compels it [emphasized by editor], as when referring to God, we see that it is a species of blasphemy to allow that it denotes endless duration when describing God's punishments.
Scotus says that we should be willing to sacrifice our own happiness for God if God were to require this. Other manifestations of anthropopathism, the attributing of human feelings to God, had also been charged against the early Christian religionists; and the writers of the time—Lactantius and Tertullian among them—took great pains to refute the largely Stoic formulations of these charges.
We will return to the rebirth of divine command theory at the end of this entry.- Because of his development of the concept of a "one god greatest among gods and men" that is abstract, universal, unchanging, immobile and always present, Xenophanes is often seen as one of the first monotheists, in the Western philosophy of religion.
Apr 18, · This argument is very old, and states that God must exist for the following reason: 1. An aspect of morality is observed. 2. Belief in God is a better explanation for this morality than any alternative.
- The Argument of Evil for the Existence of God One of the major arguments proposed against the existence of God in contemporary western philosophy is the problem of evil. It is based upon the inability to reconcile the magnitude of evil in the world with the all-loving nature of God.
Atheism and Agnosticism. Learn more about atheism and agnosticism with resources covering the philosophies, skepticism, and critical thinking of the free-thinking community. A compelling new work makes the case that most modern arguments against belief are attacking the wrong God.
The Guardian - Back to home. Monotheism's God isn't like one of the Greek gods. This is the first new rendition for a generation of The City of God, the first major intellectual achievement of Latin Christianity and one of the classic texts of Western civilization.Download